Diploma 2014: "PUBLIC PORT" by Tord M. Brudvik and Remi Iversen
The Cruise Port of Bergen, Norway
Our diploma addresses the cruise port of Bergen, Norway.
A big part of the project has been research related to program, logistics and impact of the cruise activity at different scales.
We have chosen the program of a turning-port as a key to be able to facilitate a change in the scale of impact that the cruise visits has on Bergen. Today the cruise port occupies, and effectively closes off a vital part of the inner city harbour and seafront, which is both the national and international profile of the city.
In this project we have been looking at the possibilities for how to reduce the fences surrounding the inner city harbour in Bergen, while at the same time keeping the program of a port. We have looked at consequences of placing the cruise port in alternative locations outside the city and concluded that the logic placement of the port is on its current location in the city. This is mainly due to the infrastructural issues related to transport of a large number of tourists from the port to the city.
DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM, (PORT OF CALL VS. TURNING-PORT)
PORT OF CALL
A port visited during a cruise.
No need for facilities, only a secure perimeter towards ship.
Bergen is today a port of call.
The start or end destination of a cruise, or both.
Where the cruise passengers embark or disembark.
Need for facilities to handle both passengers and ship.
WHY MAKE A TURNING PORT?
Bergen is today the leading cruise port of Norway, and the fifth largest in Northern Europe. By establishing a turning-port in Bergen, which today is something absent in Norway, ships would avoid traveling back and forth across the North Sea only for the sake of transport, saving both money and the environment. This would also entail the possibility to visit several more places in Norway during the short length of the cruise.
Increase in business activity
If a port facilitating turning operations were created in Bergen, it would generate more jobs as well as the possibility for several different local actors to expand their businesses by delivering/providing different services to the ships, their crew and their passengers. This would affect a very large part of the businesses connected to both the tourism and ships service industries.
Increased economic impact
A turning port would drastically increase the economic impact of these visits, since passengers spend more time in the city, and the ships bunker up for the journey. This strongly relates to the marketing of Norwegian products and of Norway as a travel destination.
Bergen, a base of knowledge
Further, Bergen has a great base of knowledge connected to maritime sector, with several large international and national businesses connected to ship industry as well as the cruise industry. Two of these actors which have their main offices in Bergen are European Cruise Service and Cruise Norway.
Expansion of airport
To be able to have an operative turning port it is important to have an airport with good capacity and international connections. After years of increase in congestion, the Bergen international airport, Flesland is being expanded. The expansion is due to be finished in 2017, increasing the “designed” capacity of the airport from 2.8 to 7.5 million travellers each year. This means that the airport in the near future will be more than able to accommodate a potential increase in traffic generated by an eventual turning port.
In 2012 the BOH granted 1 ship clearance to perform a turning operation in Bergen, for 2015 there is booked 5 such operations, and for 2016 there is already booked 12 turning operations, even though Bergen is without facilities to fully accommodate this kind of operation. With no terminal, and no real arrangements for this kind program, it poses a great challenge both to the ships and the port of Bergen.
Need for change
We have seen some of the cruise ports in Europe, and see a need for change in the way these places and structures occupies large areas either in or near the city centres. Here we see our role as architects to be relevant, therefor our project is a Turing-port that can function as a key towards removal of a majority of the ISPS fences, and allows for public access where it is possible.
All photos: Tord M Brudvik and Remi Iversen
In relation to the city center of Bergen, the plot of the cruise-port is very large, blocking access to a big part of the inner city seafront. The movement of the people in the city changes drastically from Torgalmenningen, Fisketorget and Bryggen to the inner city port. We observe a transition from what we define as public space, and city streets which are more dominated by people, towards a less vibrant, less public, more car dominated road. We see the entire floor of the city change in this short distance from what we may define as the very center of the city today.
By facilitating a Turning-port with new terminal facilities one could keep the program of the port but at the same time remove a majority of the fences that today prevents the area from becoming a part of the city. The key is to use the design of a new structure to deal with the matter of security and levels of security in a completely different way than how it is handled today, enabling most of the area to become public.
The designed terminal-structure consists of three parts connected with a frame that spans the entire length of the building. From this frame the floors are suspended with steel wire, making the wooden building “float” inside the massive concrete frame, allowing a column-less dock area for the ship handling operations.
Part of 1:200 section-model
The first part of the building we named “the hub”, it´s designed as a public accessible structure with an open ground floor for multiple uses, while first floor holds check in, and third floor holds office space serving the needed programs. The hub allows access to the roof which is connected by a bridge making the entire roof of the structure public at a normal security level.
The second part of the building we call “the terminal”, this part consists of two floors holding security-screening, waiting, baggage claim, customs and more. The inside of this structure and the dock area underneath is the secured part of the program, which allows only for authorized access.
The third part of the structure consists of two boarding bridges arising from the hub. These bridges continues out to meet two floating docks that functions as “ports of call”, not in need of the same type of program as we find in the terminal, together these three parts constitute what we call “The Hub Hybrid Terminal”.